A woman in Egypt is more than a woman

A woman in Egypt is more than a woman. She is also a queen. The fact is that in ancient Egypt, elements of matriarchy were preserved for a long time. It should be remembered that the pharaohs ascended the throne after marriage with the heiress. Although it happened that the women became the rulers of Egypt … True, there were not many names of female rulers: the Egyptian queen of the first dynasty – Merietit (about 3000 BC); Hetepheres I, the wife of Pharaoh Snofru and mother of Khufu; mother of two kings of the V dynasty – Hentkaus; the first female pharaoh was Neytikert; a female pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom era – Nefrusebek, who reigned for 3 years; queen Hatshepsut; the mother of Akhenaten the queen of Tiya; Nefertiti; the divine Cleopatra, etc. Margaret Murray in the book “Shine of Egypt” describes the nature of the relationship between the sexes and marriage laws: “The marriage laws of Ancient Egypt have never been formulated, and you can learn them only by studying marriages and genealogy. Then it becomes clear why Pharaoh married the heiress, ignoring the incest, and if the heir was dying, he married another heiress. Thus he remained in power … the throne passed strictly on the female line. The king’s wife was the heir. Marrying her, the king took the throne. The royal origin did not play any role. The pretender to the throne could be of any origin, but if he married the queen, he immediately became king. The queen was a queen by birth, the king became a king by marrying her. ” And yet the Egyptian woman did not just reach such social heights. Traditions of male domination nevertheless made themselves felt in ancient times. not paying attention to incest, and if the heir was dying, he married another heiress. Thus he remained in power … the throne passed strictly on the female line. The king’s wife was the heir. Marrying her, the king took the throne. The royal origin did not play any role. The pretender to the throne could be of any origin, but if he married the queen, he immediately became king. The queen was a queen by birth, the king became a king by marrying her. ” And yet the Egyptian woman did not just reach such social heights. Traditions of male domination nevertheless made themselves felt in ancient times. not paying attention to incest, and if the heir was dying, he married another heiress.Thus he remained in power … the throne passed strictly on the female line. The king’s wife was the heir. Marrying her, the king took the throne. The royal origin did not play any role. The pretender to the throne could be of any origin, but if he married the queen, he immediately became king. The queen was a queen by birth, the king became a king by marrying her. ” And yet the Egyptian woman did not just reach such social heights. Traditions of male domination nevertheless made themselves felt in ancient times. the king entered the throne. The royal origin did not play any role. The pretender to the throne could be of any origin, but if he married the queen, he immediately became king. The queen was a queen by birth, the king became a king by marrying her. ” And yet the Egyptian woman did not just reach such social heights. Traditions of male domination nevertheless made themselves felt in ancient times. the king entered the throne. The royal origin did not play any role. The pretender to the throne could be of any origin, but if he married the queen, he immediately became king. The queen was a queen by birth, the king became a king by marrying her. ” And yet the Egyptian woman did not just reach such social heights. Traditions of male domination nevertheless made themselves felt in ancient times.

One of the first queens was the great and incomparable Hatshepsut. She ruled as a man and gave Pharaonic ranks “female endings” (she was portrayed on a temple scene with a man’s physique, her face was adorned with a tied beard).Her rule has contributed a lot to the fact that Egypt has become a world power of the first rank. The Theban queens promote the expulsion of the Hyksos from the country. Note that this led to the emergence of the New Kingdom. A number of women from the Pharaoh’s circle took part in conspiracies, as was the case with the concubine of Ramses III. Unlike other countries, a woman in Egypt could become a ruler (except that in Russia and in Britain, a woman was a queen).
Tsaritsa erected monuments. Such was the tomb of the beautiful wife of Ramses II, Nefertari, “the one for whom the sun shines.” Alas, the divine Nefertari left early for another world. In the rocks of the Valley of the Tsars she was carved a burial vault, the most beautiful monument of the necropolis. The paintings occupy 520 square meters there. This is one of the best works of art from the era of the New Kingdom. Above the portico and today you can read the words: “Hereditary nobility, Great mercy, beauty, sweetness and love, Lady of Upper and Lower Egypt, reassured Lady of both lands, Nefertari, Beloved Mut.” Although Diodorus in the “Historical Library” says that the Egyptians “the queen has more power and receives more honors than the king”, she still has to rely on the government for men. Even the mighty Hatshepsut sought support in the temple nobility and is forced to rely on stewards and priests. She called them “head of dignitaries”, “head of chiefs,” “leader of leaders,” “the greatest of the great,” and so on. This allowed her to remain in power for 20 years. At the same time, her prolonged reign serves as an indisputable proof that “a brilliant woman, being the head of the state, can bring glory to the great people and ensure its prosperity.”

In Mesopotamia and ancient Jews, girls entered the age of marriage at 11-12 years, and in Egypt, and even earlier – from 6 years. Usually the Egyptian women get married at 15 years old or even earlier, becoming grandmothers as early as 30 years. Love is translated as “long desire”. It would be more correct to translate this word as “early desire”. In the Egyptian family patriarchal relations reign. Divorces were rare. The main reason for the divorce was the absence of children. If the woman acted as the initiator of the divorce, she had to return to her husband half or a third of the property (amount). If the divorce initiator was a man, he lost everything. One of the surviving documents (a kind of marriage contract) said: “If I hate you or if I fall in love with another man, I will return your silver and give up any right to land.” Such contracts were necessary,
The marriage involved people of different ages who had previously been married. And here, without the definition of property, including land, the rights were indispensable. It was also important that if a woman decided to divorce, the common child apparently remained with her father. Characteristically, among the Aramaic population, women enjoyed even greater privileges. So, they did not work and often acted as the main economists in the family. They could give a loan to a man and, as they say, were the head of the family, holding the men tightly in their hands. Maspero writes about the situation of the then Egyptian woman in such a spirit that she might even be envied by some contemporaries in Europe: “An Egyptian from the common people and the middle classes enjoys respect and independence more than anywhere else. As a daughter, she inherits from her parents a share equal to that of her brothers; as a wife, she is the true mistress of the house (nibit pi), whose husband is nothing more than a favorite guest. She leaves and returns when she pleases, talks to whom she wants, and no one interferes in it; she shows up in front of men with uncovered faces, in contrast to the Syrians, always wrapped in a more or less dense veil. ” And yet, recognizing the weighty role of Egyptian women, we note that the man occupied the first places in the hierarchy.

Abbas Mahmoud al-Akqad wrote: “We can not understand how Egyptian is conservative or ready for rebellion, if we do not understand his love for the family and his devotion to traditions and family customs. He is a conservative in the sense of preserving the family heritage, and in the name of this preservation of conservatism he is ready for an uprising in order to protect his traditions. The Egyptian can forget everything, except for the feeling of indulgence, mercy and standards of behavior in his family. ” The sage of the times of the Ancient Kingdom of Ptahotel, who left the book of wise counsel to the descendants for edification, wrote: “If you are a man of high standing, you should start your home and love your wife, as befits. Fill her stomach and dress her body; cover her skin with oil. Let her heart rejoice all the time, while you are alive, she is a fertile field for her master. You must not argue with her in court; do not get her out of yourself. Share with her what falls to your lot; this will save it for a long time in your house. ” Another saying reads: “If you are a young man and take a wife and introduce her into your home, remember that you were born and raised by the mother. Do not let your wife curse you, appeal to the gods and they would hear her … Do not burden your wife with tutelage, if you know that she is in full health … Do not say anything more and watch – only so you will know her abilities ” .These and other recognitions point to the respectful and extremely careful attitude of the men of Egypt to their women and wives. “If you are a young man and take a wife and introduce her into your home, remember that you gave birth and raised a mother. Do not let your wife curse you, appeal to the gods and they would hear her … Do not burden your wife with tutelage, if you know that she is in full health … Do not say anything more and watch – only so you will know her abilities ” . These and other recognitions point to the respectful and extremely careful attitude of the men of Egypt to their women and wives. “If you are a young man and take a wife and introduce her into your home, remember that you gave birth and raised a mother. Do not let your wife curse you, appeal to the gods and they would hear her … Do not burden your wife with tutelage, if you know that she is in full health … Do not say anything more and watch – only so you will know her abilities ” . These and other recognitions point to the respectful and extremely careful attitude of the men of Egypt to their women and wives.