According to Cohen

According to Cohen, Swerdlik & Sturman (2018), the instrument norm is created for a group of test takers to use as a reference to evaluate, interpret, and for context placing of a person’s test scores (Cohen, Swerdlik ; Sturman, 2018). This research will study ‘norm-reference’ testing to select a base to examine cognitive functions in scoring comparisons then measuring performance to measure its influence on test anxiety. As an example, data may be comprised of insufficient test preparation, students’ characteristics of freezing on a test, and self-defeating heightened confidence. Also, if previously reliability measurements are available to use, gives you verified techniques to compare data with similar constructs. A reliability measurement tool is ‘situation-specific’ which focuses on two main areas of test anxiety;