Department of Education Division of City Schools Makati Pitogo High School Negros St

Department of Education
Division of City Schools Makati
Pitogo High School
Negros St., Brgy. Pitogo, Makati City
MICRO CONTROLLER- BASED UV INTENSITY MONITORING AND WARNING DEVICE
2018 Regional Science Fair
Science Investigatory Project
School Year 2018-2019
Angcaya, Carls Owen L.center19685000
Student Researcher
Pitogo High School
Negros St., Barangay Pitogo, Makati City
Mrs. Lea D. Figueroa
Mr. Jose Mari Fontanilla
Research Advisers
November 24, 2018
ABSTRACT
UV radiation represents about 5% of solar energy, and this spectrum is between 290 and 400 nm. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a major risk factor for most skin cancers. UV rays are the main cause of the sun’s damaging effects on the skin Even though UV rays make up only a very small portion of the sun’s rays. This research was conducted to develop an effective UV monitoring device that also warns and alarms according to the intensity of the UV it gathers with the use of piezoelectric buzzer. The UV intensity index was determined after 12 hours of testing the device it recorded 0 UV index at 6 am but gradually increased from 0 to 7 until 11 am. The device recorded the highest UV intensity index 10 at 12 nn. The UV intensity index lowered to 9 at 1 pm and decreased to 0 at 6 pm. The piezoelectric buzzer effectively emitted the tone declared in the codes in relation to the UV intensity index that was being monitored. The findings reveal that the UV intensity index monitoring and warning device is effective. This can be used as an alternative UV monitoring device that is handheld and compact enough to monitor, gather, save, and warn people about the UV intensity index. The findings of the study will redound to benefit the society considering that monitoring and learning more about UV radiation is important because it has an impact on our climate and even more directly on human health.

INTRODUCTION
The sun is the main source of exposure to UV for most individuals. Sunlight consists of visible light (400–700 nm), infrared radiation (>700 nm) and UV radiation. The stratosphere stops almost all UV radiation <290 nm (UVC) as well as a large proportion of UVB (70–90%). Therefore, at ground level, UV radiation represents about 5% of solar energy, and the radiation spectrum is between 290 and 400 nm. An individual’s level of exposure to UV varies with location, time of year, time of day, clouding of the sky and other atmospheric components such as air pollution.

UV radiation belongs to the non-ionizing part of the electromagnetic spectrum and ranges between 100 nm and 400 nm. UV radiation is conventionally categorized into 3 regions: UVA (;315–400 nm), UVB (;280–315 nm) and UVC (;100–280 nm) (CIE, 1987) although there is variation in usage. In the medical and biological fields, for example, 320 nm is used as the limit between UVA and UVB More recently, it was proposed to distinguish between UVA-1 (;340–400 nm) and UVA-2 (320–340 nm)..
Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a major risk factor for most skin cancers. In the Philippines, the National Cancer Institute found out that there are approximately 1 out of 50 men and women who will be diagnosed with skin cancer during their lifetime. The common causes of skin cancer are sun exposure, heredity, and toxic exposures as the common causes (Cubillan, E., 2018). People who get a lot of UV exposure from these sources are at greater risk for skin cancer. Even though UV rays make up only a very small portion of the sun’s rays, they are the main cause of the sun’s damaging effects on the skin. UV rays damage the DNA of skin cells. Skin cancers start when this damage affects the DNA of genes that control skin cell growth.

The UV index is a tool designed for communication with the general public. It is the result of a common effort between the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the World Meteorological Organization and the International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), and is standardized by ISO/CIE. This research was conducted to develop an effective UV monitoring device that also warns and alarms according to the intensity of the UV it gathers with the use of piezoelectric buzzer. The findings of the study will redound to benefit the society especially in determining the air pollution and considering that monitoring and learning more about UV radiation is important because it has an impact on our climate and even more directly on human health.

METHODOLOGY
Preparation of Materials
The UV Detection sensor, breadboard, Real-time clock module, male and female jumper wires, pin headers, 9v battery, battery snap, dc connector, Gizduino at mega 644, Gizduino SD card shield module, piezoelectric buzzer, LCD and the protocase were bought from the e-Gizmo Mechatronix Central located at Malate, Manila.
Assembling of the Parts
The Gizduino was connected to the computer via USB type A to Micro USB type B cable. The sensor and the GizDuino was connected to the breadboard with male to male jumper wires. The SD card shield, piezoelectric buzzer, UV sensor, real-time clock module were connected to the breadboard by female to male jumper wires complete the wiring. The battery was connected to the main board to supply power to the device. The device was then put inside the acrylic case as an enclosure.
Coding of the Programs
The SD card shield, UV sensor, real-time clock module, and the LCD was programmed for it to perform the intended functions. The sensor was programmed to gather UV intensity every 1 second. The LCD was programmed to display the UV index that is being detected by the UV sensor. The data that is being gathered by the sensor is also saved upon detection with the time and date provided. The piezoelectric buzzer was programmed to emit sounds according also to the UV index gathered by the sensor.

UV Monitoring Test
The device was not put under direct sunlight to avoid overheating of the main. The device was put beside an open window on top of a table. The sensor was aimed directly outside the window to achieve an accurate reading from the UV intensity. The UV intensity index was determined after 12 hours of monitoring. The data from gathered was then transferred into Microsoft Excel for data logging to analyze the specific trends in the UV index at the given time.

Results
The result shows the intensity index of the UV at specific times with a day. The UV intensity index was determined after 12 hours of testing the device it recorded 0 UV index at 6 am but gradually increased from 0 to 8 at 8 am for the UV monitoring and warning device. The device recorded the highest UV intensity index 10 at 12 nn. The UV intensity index lowered to 9 at 1 pm and decreased to 0 at 6 pm for the UV monitoring and warning device. The UV intensity index was increasing until it reached the highest UV index then deceased until 6 pm where it recorded UV index of 0 for the UV monitoring and warning device. The two online weather station UV index was almost the same but there are those time that the 3 UV indexes vary. (Figure 1) The piezoelectric buzzer effectively emitted the tone declared in the codes in relation to the UV intensity index that was being monitored. (Table 1)
Figure 1. The hourly of 3 UV intensity index data within 12 hour period of monitoring.
Table 1. The tone emitted by the buzzer for each UV intensity index recorded
UV Intensity Index Recorded
Tone Emitted By The Buzzer
0
Tone 1
1
Tone 1
2
Tone 1
4
Tone 2
5
Tone 2
6
Tone 3
7
Tone 3
8 Tone 4
9 Tone 4
10 Tone 4
Discussion
This device in UV intensity monitoring instead of the industrial UV monitoring equipment can reduce the cost and improve the methods in monitoring environmental data. On the results of this study, the UV intensity varies with location, time of year, time of day, clouding of the sky and other atmospheric components such as air pollution.

Studies on the codes for the sensor throws light into the development of a potential low cost UV intensity index monitoring and warning device for the use of people. Further studies on the codes and improvement on the features of the sensor to be more effective in monitoring the UV intensity index is needed for the development of devices in the future. Studies on wireless transfer of data from one device to another and the use of GPS receiver to have an accurate and precise location is recommended for future studies.

Conclusion
The UV intensity index monitoring and warning device is proven effective. This can be used as an alternative UV monitoring device that is handheld and compact enough to monitor, gather, save, and warn people about the UV intensity index. Such factors like the clouding of the sky, different locations and other atmospheric components such as air pollution can affect the UV indexes and that’s why the 3 UV indexes vary. The effectiveness of this device as shown from figure 1 and table 1 with the use of data logging, was observed to be an excellent device to be used by people in monitoring UV index in different fields.
Acknowledgement
This research paper was made possible through the help and support from our classmates, teachers, friends, family and especially God. I would like to express our deepest gratitude to Luke Alexander Pons of PHS Robotics Team for patiently teaching and sharing his talent in building the device and helping me to code the programs for my research. I would also like to thank Mr. Jimmy Binggayen for sharing his knowledge in arduino and lending me his materials for this research. I would like to thank Ms. Lea D. Figueroa for being a supportive research adviser from the beginning and helping me to improve my research. She gave me continuous words of encouragement and enough trust for my research to keep on going.

I sincerely give thanks to everyone who were there to support me all throughout the making of my research. This research paper will not be possible without all of them.

Bibliography
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