INTRODUCTION Africa

INTRODUCTION
Africa, a continent endowed with immense natural and human resource as well as great cultural, ecological and economic diversity, remains underdeveloped. Most African nations suffer from military dictatorships, corruption, civil unrest and war, underdevelopment and deep poverty. Utmost of the countries classified by the UN as least developed are in Africa. Many development strategies have been abortive to produce the expected results. Although some believe that the continent is doomed to perpetual poverty and economic slavery, Africa has immense potential with its knowledge and has been for quite long time.
Despite affliction through the horrendous arrangement of subjugation, sharecropping and the Jim Crow period, early African-Americans made endless commitments to science and innovation (Kresge, 2011). This heredity and culture of accomplishment, however, rose no less than 40,000 years back in Africa. Sadly, few of us know about these achievements, as the historical backdrop of Africa, past antiquated Egypt, is only here and there plugged. In this paper we will investigate the commitments that are made by Sub-Saharan nations in this period of globalization.
INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE AND THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY
The knowledge economy is characterized as another request where information is perceived as funding to be utilized for advancement and flourishing. IK is moderately imperceptible in the knowledge economy. In the event that IK has added to present day learning frameworks, at that point this has not been perceived. On the off chance that cooperation in the information economy is tied in with utilizing one’s learning for some advantage then one might say that Africans have not yet started to use that IK. Rather, in light of the fact that much IK is in people in general area, it has been helpless against misappropriation, and numerous cases proliferate, such a US organization taking out a patent for the utilization of turmeric to recuperate wounds (Padma, 2005).

OUTLINE ON THE CONTRIBUTIONS MADE BY SUB-SAHARANS TO GLOBAL KNOWLEDGE
• Sub-Saharan African inventions:
• Medicine, Vaccination ; Surgery
• Astronomy, European astronomy didn’t catch up to the Dogon astronomy well into world war 2
• Megaliths
• Architecture, the walls of Benin, largest ancient structure in the ancient world, 4 times the size of great wall of China
Fire
• Civilization
• Math
• Steel
• Metallurgy and tools
• Civilization
• Language
• Writing-dance
• Art
• Music
In this assignment the focus will be on the 4 inventions that are of great influence in development of a country or state which is medicine, architecture, mathematics, metallurgy and tool making. The outlined systems and the knowledge embedded in them were mostly shared in harmony and some were lost during the era of slave trade, when most Africans were traded to European countries mostly for hard labor or domestic work.
DISCUSSION ON THE CONTRIBUTIONS MADE BY SUB-SAHARANS TO GLOBAL KNOWLEDGE
One of the soonest and most focal bits of knowledge of the writing on financial advancement is that improvement involves basic change. The nations that figure out how to pull themselves out of neediness and get wealthier are those that can expand far from agribusiness and other customary items. As work and different assets move from farming into present day monetary exercises, general efficiency rises, and salaries grow. The speed with which this auxiliary change happens is the key factor that separates fruitful nations from unsuccessful ones.

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Mining of Minerals
The most seasoned known mine on archeological record is the “Lion Cave” in Swaziland, which radiocarbon dating shows to be around 43,000 years of age. The old Egyptians mined a mineral called malachite. While the gold personalities of Nubia were among the biggest and most broad on the planet.
Mining activity often carriages a tough and troublesome dilemma for indigenous people and their communities. On the one hand, mining activity and its associated social and environmental impacts pose a threat to indigenous ways of life and livelihoods and to important cultural and spiritual sites. On the other hand, indigenous communities have in some instances welcomed mining as an avenue of regaining economic self-sufficiency in the face of the enormous impacts of colonization.
Techniques of Mining
Since the inception of metallurgy, the availability of ores in concentrations sufficient for human exploitation above or below ground determined the techniques used to extract those ores. Initially, outcropping ores were surface collected, but when these were exhausted, miners followed the mineralization underground. Once underground, the branching out of mineralization horizontally or obliquely created shafts and admits.
In light of the confirmation from the Eastern Desert in Egypt, alluvial mining is one of the most punctual strategies used to remove gold. Inside fluctuating worldly and social settings, alluvial mining included the scooping of mineral-rich sand into a container, for example, a bowl. In the wake of shaking the sand, the hearty material skimmed to finish everything while the substantial mineral settled at the base. Alluvial methods were utilized to mine the gold from the Nubian Desert. The gold fields of Bambuk in West Africa, which provided gold to the incredible domains of Ghana (700– 1230 ce), Mali (1230– 1600 ce) and Songhai (1375– 1575 ce) were correspondingly mined utilizing alluvial strategies. With the settlement of Europeans on the Atlantic Coast, different portrayals of gold mining in the Gold Coast (advanced Ghana) wound up inexhaustible. At the late seventeenth century, Olfert Dapper records the system of scooping sand from the streams by jumpers who had weights lashed on their backs (Summer)

Metallurgy and Tools
Numerous advances in metallurgy and device making were made over the total of old Africa. These incorporate steam motors, metal etches and saws, copper and iron instruments and weapons, nails, stick, carbon steel and bronze weapons and craftsmanship. In places like Tanzania, Rwanda and Uganda, the advances in metallurgy and apparatus making outperformed those in Europe.
Western observers have commented on the technology of mining and metallurgy in sub-Saharan Africa for over three hundred years, but Western awareness of the cultural dimensions of African metallurgy is much more recent. It was not until the looting of Benin City by the British expedition of 1897 that the outside world learned of the West African traditions of figurative art in metal, and not until the late 1940s that these traditions were first investigated by archaeologists. Anthropological studies of the cognitive and symbolic aspects of metallurgy in preindustrial African societies are even more recent. Although missionaries and colonial officials had drawn attention in the early 1900s to the rituals associated with smelting metals in Africa, serious anthropological studies of the conceptual and social aspect of these technologies were not conducted until the late 1940s.
Mathematics
The development of arithmetic is put immovably in African ancient times. The most seasoned known potentially numerical protest is the Lebombo bone, which was found in the Lebombo Mountains of Swaziland and dated to roughly 35,000 B.C. A large number of the math ideas that are found out in school today were additionally created in Africa. More than 35,000 years back, Ancient Egyptians scripted course books about math that included division and increase of parts and geometric equations to figure the territory and volume of shapes.
As early evidence for (proto-) mathematical activity in Africa, Zaslavsky presented a bone, dated between 9000 and 6500 B.C., which was unearthed at Ishang (Zaire). The bone has what appear to be tallying marks on it, notches carved in groups. Its discoverer, De Heinzelin, interpreted the patterns of notches as an “arithmetical game of some sort, devised by a people who had a number system based on 10 as well as a knowledge of duplication and of prime numbers”. (Marshack 2000), however, explained the bone as an early lunar phase count. Their views, summarized, were reproduced in. Later, Marshack reevaluated the dating of the Ishango bone, setting it back from about 8,000 B.C. to 20,000 B.~. Zaslavsky raises the question “who but a woman keeping track of her cycles would need a lunar calendar?” and concludes that “women were undoubtedly the first mathematicians!” .Bogoshi et al. reported in 1987 on a still much older “mathematical artefact. A small piece of the fibula of a baboon, marked with 29 clearly defined notches, may rank as the oldest mathematical artefact known. Discovered in the early seventies during an excavation of Border Cave in the Lebombo Mountains between South Africa and Swaziland, the bone has been dated to approximately 35,000 B.C. They note that the bone “resembles calendar sticks still in use today by Bushmen clans in Namibia”.

Medicine
Numerous medications utilized today in present day solution were first utilized in Africa hundreds of years prior. The soonest known surgery was performed in Egypt around 2750 B.C. Therapeutic strategies performed in antiquated Africa before they were performed in Europe incorporate inoculation, post-mortem, appendage footing and broken bone setting, slug evacuation, mind surgery, skin joining, filling of dental holes, establishment of false teeth, what is presently known as Cesarean areas, anesthesia and tissue searing.
Traditions, customs and burn wounds:
Local traditions nearly regardless have created material medica from locally accessible normal substances based on their physical activities/impacts and additionally supernatural properties. In this area just, plant and creature material that are straightforwardly or nearly connected with consume wound mending will be portrayed.
From a social customary setting, ailment must have a reason what’s more, finding the explanation behind the issue is frequently more essential than treating the sickness itself (Kale, 1995). Normal diseases (cerebral pains, hacks, wounds, wounds) are sicknesses with characteristic causes and are to be dealt with symptomatically (Busia,2005). In any case, convictions that have been given down through the ages could impact the way in which the consume is managed; fire and steam might be viewed as having recuperating powers for different types of sick wellbeing and may therefore be connected, consequently unintentionally thermally harming the tolerant.
Herbal medicines are a characteristic part of African traditional medical practices. They are much cheaper than conventional medications and therefore voluntarily accepted and widely used. In any case, it is just as of late that it has been perceived that the immense arms stockpile of therapeutic plants on the African mainland, if legitimately bridled, could rescue the disintegrating medicinal services frameworks of most African nations. It has additionally been understood that the huge pharmaceutical signi?cance of numerous tropical medicinal plants could be used to produce genuinely necessary outside trade, and furthermore make employments for many African nations.
The outcome has been a fast blast in the home-grown industry over the landmass. For example, it has been accounted for that in 1986 alone Cameroon earned around 3 billion francs (CFA) from exchange in medicinal plants toward the Western world (Erah, 2000). But the blasting home grown industry clearly has its drawbacks. There is as of now awesome unease about the quality, security and ef?cacy and the measurement of herbal items. Added to this are the regularly uncork-borated cases that try to convince general society that various home-grown recipes are panaceas for all human ailments. Lamentably, numerous African nations do not have administrative polices that can successfully address tendencies issues (Ajai, 1990). A few advocates of herbal hone contend that herbs, being items of nature can’t be as entirely directed as medications. They point to the way that even in the USA, natural products are managed as dietary supplements, and are hence not subject to most of the administrative prerequisites of proprietary drugs.

Architecture and Engineering

The African realm of Egypt built up an immense range of assorted structures and awesome compositional landmarks along the Nile, among the biggest and most acclaimed of which are the Great Pyramid of Giza and the Great Sphinx of Giza. Afterward, in the twelfth century there were several awesome urban communities in Zimbabwe and Mozambique made of enormous stone buildings and tremendous castle like mixes. In the thirteenth century, the domain of Mali bragged amazing urban communities, including Timbuktu, with excellent royal residences, mosques and colleges.
The design of Africa, especially of sub-Saharan Africa. In North Africa, where Islam and Christianity had a huge impact, engineering prevails among the visual expressions. Included here are the superb mosques worked of mud in Djenné and Mopti in Mali, the stone cut places of worship of Ethiopia, and the Islamic landmarks of waterfront eastern Africa. Discourses of design in sub-Saharan Africa center essentially around lodging in towns, country mosques, and the mélange of provincial and modern influences that describe urban regions.
African engineering mirrors the association of ecological elements, for example, common assets, atmosphere, and vegetation—with the economies and populace densities of the mainland’s different districts. As stone is the strongest of building materials, some old stone structures survive, while different materials have capitulated to rain, decay, or termites. Stone-walled kraals from early Sotho and Tswana settlements (South Africa and Botswana) and stone-fixed pit hovers with depressed kraals for dwarf cows (Zimbabwe) have been the subject of archeological investigation. Stone-corbeled safe houses and roundabout cabins with covered rooftops were additionally recorded in the twentieth century among the southern Sotho. Rectangular and round stone farmhouses, uncommon in being two stories, have been worked by the Tigre of Eritrea and Sudan for quite a long time, while in Niger some Tuareg construct square houses in stone.
The design types of Great Zimbabwe, be that as it may, are atypical of numerous African engineering styles. The site has an enormous guarded divider and, incorporated into the circular building, a cone like pinnacle of obscure reason. It is additionally great in scale, having worked as an illustrious fortification, and it has turned into a national image. While a portion of these highlights can be found in different cases of African building, they are uncommon, and the accentuation on Zimbabwe has dominated the colossal assorted variety of materials, structures, purposes, and uses normal for engineering somewhere else in Africa.

OPPORTUNITIES OF PROTECTING INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE
The administration of IK includes an arrangement of interrelated exercises concerning the identification, accumulation, codification, documenting, association, safeguarding, exchange, connecting, application, protection, scattering and sharing of information on indigenous group employments and biological systems, for economic improvement. (Padma, 2005). A library in general and an open library specifically is a suitable grapple accomplice in the IKM framework in light of the strength of its position both inside the group also, inside the administration structures through which it is built up.
Padma, (2005). Access to IK can’t be accomplished without including libraries since they are one of the building squares of the nearby data and information infrastructure. Therefore, indigenous learning ought to be incorporated into library exercises if these organizations are to serve the data prerequisites of the neighborhood populaces. Libraries can productively and viably design, gather, classify, organize. A library with substance of neighborhood importance will urge groups to make utilization of library administrations, particularly on the off chance that they are enabled to take part in improvement of the substance.
Open libraries serving ethnic groups whose histories are secured up composed, pictorial and oral customs are all around situated to give a stage to open engagement in the gathering and dispersing of indigenous learning in the groups they serve.

Existing open library framework can be utilized as a stage from which the preservation of IK program is to be propelled. The utilization of PC for preservation of IK can be made on the off chance that they bolster the maintenance and transmission of information inside those groups that built up the information, safeguard, utilize, control, and scatter IK.
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The International Federation of Library Association (IFLA) has clearly mandated libraries to: . collect, preserve and disseminate indigenous and local knowledge; publicize the value, contribution, and importance of indigenous knowledge to both non-indigenous and indigenous peoples; raise awareness on the protection of indigenous knowledge against exploitation; involve elders and communities in the production of IK and teaching children to understand and appreciate the traditional knowledge; and. encourages the recognition of principles of intellectual property to ensure the proper protection and use of indigenous knowledge and products derived from it.
CONCLUSION
Considering the preferences and hindrances of globalization for Africa, clearly the character of Africa is in question. There is in this manner a requirement for the safeguarding of Africa’s identity. African law-making bodies additionally have a part to play; if the laws and arrangements that can shield our qualities are declared by the administration or sanctioned by conventional decision chambers, the rot of our esteems will be obstructed, and their recuperation upgraded. There ought to be control of whatever originates from outside before they are took into consideration nearby utilization. Nevertheless, Africans are happy for recognition in the live changing inventions that are contributing to human day to day lives. Nevertheless the need to take ownership of our knowledge systems and use them to our advantage for development is gradually arising, In order to ensure accessibility and that they are not exploited for the use of generations to come, tools and methods of managing IK are in place and need to be integrated with the western systems to ensure sustainability and availability.