Q1

Q1.

Ethical and non -Ethical practices around the world are -:
Non- Ethical practices
1. Abusing organization time
Regardless of whether it is covering for somebody who appears late or adjusting a period sheet, abusing organization time best the rundown. This classification incorporates realizing that one of your collaborators is leading private issue on organization time. By “private concern” the review perceives the contrast between making cool calls to propel your independent business and getting your life partner to discover how your wiped out youngster is getting along.
Example- Employees reporting late to the workplace, Not completing their work on the due date

2. Damaging conduct
An excessive number of work environments are loaded with chiefs and directors who utilize their position and energy to abuse or lack of regard others. Tragically, unless the circumstance you’re in includes race, sex or ethnic birthplace, there is frequently no legitimate assurance against harsh conduct in the working environment. To take in more, look at the Workplace Bullying Institute.
Example- blaming a employ for what he has not done, shouting on an employ.

3. Representative robbery
As indicated by a current report by Jack L. Hayes International, one out of each 40 representatives in 2012 was discovered taking from their boss. Much all the more startling is that these workers take by and large 5.5 times more than shoplifters ($715 versus $129). Worker extortion is likewise on the uptick, regardless of whether its check altering, not recording deals with a specific end goal to skim, or controlling cost repayments. Moral alarm: The FBI as of late announced that representative burglary is the fasting developing wrongdoing in the U.S. today.
Example- misuse of assets
4. Misleading workers
The speediest method to lose the trust of your workers is to deceive them, yet managers do everything the time. One of out each five workers report that their administrator or director has misled them inside the previous year
Example- embezzlement
5. Abusing organization web approaches
Cyber slackers. Cyberloafers. These are terms used to recognize individuals who surf the Web when they ought to work. It’s a gigantic, multi-billion-dollar issue for organizations. An over
view led as of late by Salary.com found that ordinary no less than 64 percent of representatives visit sites that have nothing to do with their work. Who might have imagined that checking your Facebook page is turning into a moral issue?

The uplifting news from the ERC contemplate is that most American laborers and managers make the best choice. The study uncovers that the vast majority of us take after our organization’s moral models of conduct, and we will report bad behavior when we see it (unless it’s the organization’s Internet utilize arrangement). Be that as it may, for those of us who track moral conduct in the work environment, there are some troublesome patterns in the ERC study. The level of representatives who encountered some type of countering for revealing non-moral conduct moved from 15 percent to 22 percent. Trust in the morals of senior pioneers declined from 68 percent to 62 percent. With regards to the moral work environment, we might be on a descending movement.
Example- using social media at work.
Ethical behavior
1. Create Ethical Standards
A necessary initial step is to formalize your desires and make it clear about which practices are and aren’t worthy. In the event that you haven’t done as such as of now, make a code of morals area in your representative handbook that frameworks appropriate business lead. This ought to wipe out any perplexity and uncertainty about your organization’s moral practices and keep everybody in agreement.
Example- faithful, honest, trustworthy employee
2. Guarantee Leaders Exhibit Proper Behavior
Conduct frequently streams down through and through inside an association. It’s subsequently urgent that your pioneers demonstration highmindedly and fill in as cases for whatever is left of your staff. All things considered, if administrators show sketchy moral conduct, for what reason would it be advisable for anyone to else be relied upon to act with moral conviction? At the point when pioneers try to do they say others should do and maintain an elevated requirement of morals, whatever is left of your staff will have a positive good example.
Example – leaders or manager should treat their group members nicely and politely
3. Be Diligent About Enforcing Policies
We should be practical. Not every person will maintain each and every moral desire 100 percent of the time, and guidelines will definitely be broken. It’s imperative that you don’t endure unsuitable conduct and demonstrate that there are outcomes. Considering workers responsible ought to keep the propagation of any unpalatable practices and nip them before they gain out of power.

4. Acclaim Positive Behavior
Similarly as it’s imperative to step out exploitative practices, it’s similarly vital to adulate your workers for following prescribed procedures. This doesn’t need to be anything over the best, yet you should make it a point to recognize people who satisfy desires. Example- should fill in as encouraging feedback, which can have some long haul benefits for your business.

5. Advance Community Involvement
What’s a repeating theme among a portion of the world’s most moral organizations? Most tend to put an accentuation on group contribution and are truly inspired by positively affecting the world. Regardless of whether it’s fund-raising for nearby causes, setting up volunteer projects for representatives or giving to commendable philanthropies, this can be enormous.

Following moral practices is vital for some reasons and a noteworthy pitching point to a considerable lot of the present purchasers. By taking measures to advance morals in your working environment, you can make a superior culture, enhance your image notoriety and basically feel great that you’re accomplishing something positive.

Q2

A1:
Companies like Howmet Corporation should not have the right to fire employees without a good or proper reason. The reasons are:
6.Employees generally make a concerted and dedicated effort to ensure that organization performs well with a belief that the organization will treat them fairly in return. Therefore even in the absence of a formal written agreement, there is an implied agreement that the employee will be treated fairly by the organization. Firing an employee without appropriate reason is violation of employee’s right.
7.The concept of Employment at Will is based on the assumption that just as employees are free to find work elsewhere, employers should also be able to fire the employees at will without assigning any reason. Employer has the right to decide regarding running of business. However, in the absence of an alternative job, employees are not really free to accept or reject employment without suffering financial losses/hardships. Hence, free choice argument does not hold true.
8.Employees have right to be treated with respect and as equal persons. False accusations and unsubstantiated allegations violate this right.
9.Employees also have right to due process. Due process refers to fairness of the process by which employee is terminated. Due process is one in which clear rules and regulations are explained as the employee starts the job and violators are explained how they have violated the rules, they are given a chance to explain their position and rules are applied consistently.Due process ensures that individuals are not treated maliciously or arbitrarily by the superiors.
A2:
According to me, Employee Handbook and her first supervisor do give Nancy the right to not be fired without a good or proper reason. The employee handbook does mention that no employee will be terminated without proper reason and not until management has reviewed the facts regarding termination of employment. Although, first page of the handbook states that contents of the employee handbook are not intended to establish any contract between Howmet Corporation and any employee, the provisions of the handbook cannot be above the law.
Termination of employment for a reason (not wearing a particular dress at the company picnic) which is not directly related to Nancy’s role and responsibilities is against the principle of justice and fairness.

Q3:

Delivering Pizza
A1:
Yes. Domino’s delivery policy is morally justified because Domino has an obligation towards its employees to provide safe working environment. Safety of the employees cannot be compromised and the policy of designating neighborhoods is based on facts and data regarding safety. Organization is working on the policy of “Employees First Customers Second”. If employees are taken care of, they will take care of the business and its customers.
A2:
Yes. Domino’s, Pizza Hut and Little Caesar’s could have following policies in place to safeguard their drivers:
1)HR Policy- Hiring of drivers from the minority groups and preferably from the same neighborhoods which are troublesome. Local employees are likely to face less trouble in such areas.
2)Outsourcing Delivery – Delivery process could be outsourced to local small businesses in trouble prone areas.
3)No Home Delivery Policy: Domino’s, Pizza Hut and Little Caesar’s could collectively adopt a policy of non-delivery at door-step. This will prevent unfair advantage to any one player and also protect all of them against law suits on grounds of discrimination
4)Pricing Policy- To charge higher premium for delivery in trouble prone areas to encourage customers to come and collect the pizza themselves.
A3:
I do not agree with the law prohibiting policy of not delivering to some neighborhoods. The policy is not discriminatory but is based on factual information and data regarding criminal activities. Organization has right to protect its employees against intimidation and bodily harm.

Q4.
Analyze the ethics of marketing Publius using utilitarianism, rights, justice, and caring. In your judgment, is it ethical to market Publius? Explain.

Technology in every aspect can be misused by wrong people. Inventors or people can come up with an innovative invention to benefit people; however there are also people who would who would use this invention to do wrong things. Publius is a new technology that guarantees individuals the freedom of speech and to express their thoughts and not be victimized for what they say. Publius offer safety to certain levels that hackers or government entity cannot just read your file. In my opinion it is ethical to market Publius because it creates of open the door for people to speak out about the different malpractices that happen in their country and couldn’t speak about it.   

  2. Are the creators of Publius in any way morally responsible for any criminal acts that criminals are able to carry out and keep secret by relying on Publius? Is AT &T in anyway morally responsible for these? Explain your answers.

Personally I believe Publius is a great technology because it makes it impossible for people to edit and alter ones documents. I honestly believe that AT & T is in no way responsible for any misuse of their technology because any technology or inventions can be misused if it gets into the wrong hands. There is always a positive and negative side to everything in life. We can use the invention of a car for example it takes you for one place to the next in little time when compare to horses in the old days but the negative side to it is air pollution, technical errors and human errors that cause the death of many people yearly but we can blame the scientist who created the cars. However systems must be put in place to avoid of catch people that are using the technology to do wrong.

  3.   In your judgment, should governments allow the implementation of Publics? Why or why not?

In my judgment, US Government ought not permit the usage of Publics

*The security of their kin is the essential focal point of any legislature and access to private data on the World Wide Web isn’t intended to rebuff the residents, nor is it intended to threaten or rebuff them; it is intended to defend their lives and their property. One of the positive commitments of the capacity of the legislature to get to data on the World Wide Web is the interruption of the exercises of crooks and psychological militants. Most lawbreakers and psychological oppressors flourish in nations that have feeble reconnaissance techniques and the utilization of the Publius on the World Wide Web will successfully make a place where hoodlums are less helpless against fear as it makes observation considerably more troublesome for governments and other directing bodies. Different violations that can be battled utilizing the utilization of the subpoena powers incorporate tax evasion and robbery of personality. Fraud is a moderately new wrongdoing that has had negative monetary effects on numerous nations, particularly the US and numerous other created nations, and however access to private data on the World Wide Web alone may not help in relieving the wrongdoing of character burglaries, it can assume a noteworthy part in the counteractive action of the wrongdoing. Mass observation, particularly amid this period of computerized unrest, is important to check the extensive variety of digital wrongdoings that may undermine the security of a country, much like reconnaissance that is required in ‘this present reality’. While the security of individuals*

Q5.

New balance and the “Made in USA” label case study
1) was new balance’s use of the ‘Made in USA’ label deceptive advertising?
New balance reviews of made in US was not a deceptive advertising because  they only supported US products and Rubber was not a product of US  later on they introduced a rule which  only will support US jobs.

2) In your view should new balance have been allowed to use the label? Why?

As per the rule 70% should be manufactured in the country and Rubber is not grown in America so it is ethical for the company to import 25% of the raw material