Psychodynamic Perspective was developed by Sigmund Freud (1859-1939) Haralambos, et al. (2002) the approach which included Psychoanalytic Theory of personality. Freud developed an interconnection of an iceberg to analysis three parts of the mind. The conscious the tip of the iceberg is made up of mental processes that we are aware of. The preconscious our beliefs and emotions that are unreachable but without difficulty being brought to conscious, and unconscious the suppression of memories and knowledge in the mind, that impact decisions and behaviour. According to Freud our childhood experiences that are supressed in the unconscious can impact adulthood, as it shapes our personality. McLeod, (2017). Personality advances at separate stages.
The ID is natural from birth it is a spontaneous and unconscious part of personality the ‘Pleasure Principle’ that responds to impulses that need to be pleased instantly despite the consequences.
The Superego instil values and morals that are the norm in society, these are instilled by parents and others. Its purpose is to dominant the impulses the ID by prompting the feeling of guilt, as these impulses are not acceptable in societies world of conduct.
The EGO negotiates between the ID and Superego its part of the personality the behaves within reason by working on the ‘Reality Principle’ by using practical ways of satisfying the ID demands without causing conflicts in life. McLeod, (2016), when conflicts arise it causes anxiety, initiating defences mechanism to cope for example,
Denial refuses to accept truth, e.g. smoking is bad for your health.
Reaction-Formation, the suppression of events, e.g. supressing memories of sexual abuse into the unconscious mind McLeod, (2017).
Evaluation of the Psychodynamic Approach, it has had a huge influence on psychology and is still use and discussed and has huge impact on diverse subjects. However, Freud concepts cannot be corroborated as theories cannot be tested and are open to prejudice.
However, J.B. Watson (1878-1958) Haralambos, (2002) developer of the Behaviourist Perspective, disagreed with Freud as his ideas rely on theories and actions that could not be observed, and he could not demonstrate the unconscious mind exists. Watson approach is that psychology is a science, data is collected and controlled from monitoring and assessment of behaviour on animals and humans. Watson believes that we are born into the world with a ‘Blank Slate’ and our behaviour learnt from external environments. We learn this behaviour through Classical or Operating Conditioning known as the ‘Learning Theory’. McLeod, (2017). Classical conditioning was discovered by Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Haralambos, (2002), it is made up of stages,
(Stage 1) behaviour that is unlearnt had produce an Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) initiating an Unconditioned response (UCR), e.g. stomach infection would initiate a response of sickness.
(Stage 2) the combination of (UCS) and (UCR) has produce a Conditioned stimulus (CS), infection is linked to certain food, becomes a Conditioned Response (CS), the food which was consumed before infection took hold generates a response of sickness.
The UCS and CS should respond together and should occur multiple times for learning to happen. McLeod, (2018).
Operating Conditioning was discovered by B.F. Skinner (1904-1990), Haralambos, (2002), Skinner believes that behaviour that is good and receives a reward will occur again the in same way, but behaviour that is bad and receives a punishment will not be repeated. Skinner establishes that there are three types of reactions that follow behaviour.
Positive reinforcement e.g., reward given for learning spellings, behaviour will likely occur again.
Negative reinforcement for spellings that are not learned, behaviour will decline.
Punishment by removal of incentive completely can have adverse effect from positive to fear of spellings. McLeod, (2018)
Evaluation of the Behaviourist Perspective, it is researched based, using observable events to collect data to support their theories, however critics state, their theories fail to deal with the invisible characteristics of human life.
In contrast Cognitive Perspective approach that has input from many Psychologists, Haralambos. (2002), it challenges the Behaviourist force of conditioned behaviour and Psychodynamic concept of evaluation of the mind, they agree with Behaviourist that Psychology is a science, using Lab experiments to test their ideas. The approach compares the human mind to that of a computer, as both are information processors, we input, store and output information the same as computers. Psychologists focuses on processes of memory, thinking, language and perception and how knowledge is received and processed by the mind and how it gives direction for behaviour or justification of why we behave the way we do. McLeod, (2015).
Bartlett, (1886-1969) confirm that memories and information as gathered is stored in the mind as Schemas, these are mental concepts that notifies an individual about expectations from experiences and circumstances, they mature based on experiences through life, and are created to provide a shortcut with future similar encounters easier. Example; Event Schema, what behaviour is deemed appropriate for events, the mind will consciously inform you how to act and what to say. Cherry, (2018).
Example: Albert Ellis (1957) ABC model to understand behaviour.
A: Activating event: (Input, examines stimuli) Response to external stimuli e.g. Psychology Assignment.
B: Belief: (Storage, codes and influences stimuli) thoughts to stimuli e.g. Difficult, not enough time.
C: Consequence: (Output, primes suitable response to stimuli). activate response in behaviour: e.g. Stress. McLeod, (2015).
Evaluation of Cognitive Perspective, it is the most govern approach in psychology it uses precise accurate methods to understand cognitive processes using lab experiments to provide dependable, verified data, however critics accuse the approach of being cold disregarding emotions, and experiences that effect the mind, as the mind is more powerful than a machine.
However, Human Perspective that have two contributors Carl Rogers (1902-1987) and Abraham Maslow (1906-1970), Haralambos, (2002) approach rejects the Psychodynamic and Behaviourist approach, it considers them as dehumanizing, and rejects the scientific method of studying individuals. It explores the individualism of each person and supports the theory that all individuals have ‘free will’ and can choose their own actions to fulfil they potential to lead a happy life. Rogers believes that everyone is good and have desires to fulfil own potential by choosing their own behaviour, he also thinks that ever individual judges the world in their own way, and to understand someone actions, you need to see the world how they see it. Everyone is inspired to self-actualize the need for psychological growth, satisfaction and fulfilment in life, and Rogers and Maslow have different concepts of how this can be achieved. McLeod, (2008).
Rogers believes that for an individual to fulfil self-actualisation, they must be in a position of congruence, the occurrence of individuals ideal-self is in harmony with their self-image. This only occurs if they feel valued and respected by others (unconditioned positive regard), without scepticism, only being valued and loved if they meet conditions of self-worth (behaving well). The conditions of self-worth create differences between the real-self (how the individual is), and the ideal-self (how the individual they should be). To help individuals fulfil they potential Rogers developed various techniques, for example Client-centred Therapy, he believes that to form relationships with the client, therapists must have three important qualities, Empathy, Congruence and Respect, these help the individual to feel understood, while helping to them to reach their own understandings of feelings and perceptions. Khan, Bowley (2018-2019).
However, Maslow’s views are that individuals have a diversity needs, which he arranged in levels of Hierarchy within a pyramid structure.
From the bottom of the pyramid are the basic Psychological needs, like food and water. Once these needs have been satisfied individuals move on to the following level of safety and security. Progression up Psychological needs become entwined with social needs of love and friendship and even further up self-esteem and personal accomplishment become important. Once all these needs have been satisfied the individual has progressed to self-actualization. Cherry, (2018).
Evaluation of the Humanistic approach sees individuals as good, insisting on human values such as free will, self-definition and individuals autonomy, but critics argue that is not possible to verify these qualities as the theory is based on individuals own experience.
On the other hand, The Biological approach believes we are who we are as a result of genetics, they believe that behaviour is biological and physiological, so Biopsychology’s investigates behaviour by examining and comparing different varieties of animal’s brains, nervous systems, hormones and inherited characteristics. McLeod, (2015).
Biopsychologists, are focused on range of physiological and biochemical basis of behaviour. The brain that is made up of neurons that release chemical messengers (neurotransmitters) that passes messengers to other neurons. Every individual neurotransmitter has a specific function and too little or too much influences behaviour.
E.g. Stress is a psychological and biological response to a stimulus like, death, this will active a chemical called Adrenaline (fight or flight response), the chemical will increase heart rate and blood pressure to prepare for action. McLeod, (2010).
Serotonin chemical occurs naturally in the body, it plays a crucial role in balancing moods, and is know as the ‘feel good’ chemical. Kristaylyn Salters-Predneault, (2018).
The approach also scientific use methods to investigate genetically inherited behaviour, it shows that genes have an impact individuals’ personality and behaviour compared to environment. Genetic influences are tested using animals and twin studies. McLeod, (2010).
Twin studies are a way to study nature and nurture and its effects on behaviour. It is a natural experiment that’s provides geneticists with comparisons of behaviour between Monozygotic identical twins (100% genetic information shared) and Dizygotic non-identical twins (50% genetic information shared).
For inherited characteristics to be responsible for behaviour, studies on identical twins should show a greater similarity in behaviour compared to non-identical twins. McLeod, (2015).
Evaluation of the Biological approach can be scientifically be tested to support theories, can be linked to cognitive and psychodynamic perspective and be used in real life applications, but critics argue that the approach is too deterministic, and simplifies behaviour and emotions to genes and chemical.
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