The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act

The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) was introduced in 2005 to provide maximum guaranteed wage and guaranteed employment for 100 days in every financial year to rural household with unemployed adult members willing to do unskillful manual work. In its first phase the act was notified in 200 districts with effect from 2nd feb 2006.In next year 2007-08 it was extended to 130 districts (113 districts notified on 1 st april 2007 and 17 districts of Uttar Pradesh were Notified on 15th May 2007).The remaining 295 Districts was notified on April 1st 2008 Thus MGNREGA covers entire country except the districts that have 100% urban Population. NREGA was renamed as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act on 2nd October 2009 therefore the scheme is now known as MGNREGA.
This act was introduced with an aim to provide social safety and to empower the living standard of the Rural Population without migrating to other places in search of work as the work was provided in their own village. This act also help in empowerment of village infrastructure as the Jobs provided under MGNREGA help to develop infrastructure of the Village and to increase the resources of their needs. This act also aims to empower woman as there is 33% reservation to women which helps the women to be self dependent.

India is the high developing country. But most of the people are illiterate and poor in terms of human development indices. We were able to produce food for our people through the green revolution. Still India could never be without a begging bowel. The best aim is to make India free from poverty. Everyone is strong in trade & commerce, science & technology, health care provision and education to all. But everyone is not able to enjoy full employment situation. There are many indicators considering the wealth of a nation and the property of its people.
A developed status cannot be made without Upliftment of many more millions of people. They all should have a secure position to look forward for a better future. Gainful employment opportunities must be available to eradicate poverty. The aim of the scholar is to suggest some Measures to make use of all the employable resources fully and to overcome the problem of unemployment. India lives in its villages’-a proverbial statement which is true even today.
Dr. Manmohan Singh said that renaming the NREGA as the MGNREGA would be a “befitting tribute” to the Father of Nation. Mahatma Gandhi has staunchly advocated decentralization of Government or power in order to make if more transparent as well as more effective in empowering the rural people. The Prime Minister added, has become a crucial tool for carrying out the Government’s welfare schemes since the system of decentralization of power ensures that the common man gets a role in executing them. It spite of some problems at the initial stages, the NREGA has produced the desired results.

WORKS PERFORMED UNDER MGNREGA
The following works done in order of priority:
? Water preservation and water harvest.

? Drought proofing (including afforestation and tree plantation).

? Irrigation canals use for irrigation purpose.

? Provisions of irrigation facility to land owned by households have to do with scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.

? Renovation of water bodies including desalting of tanks.

? Land development & soil conservation works.

? Flood control and protection work including drainage in water logged areas.

? Rural connectivity to give all weather access. The construction of roads, ponds and others may include culverts where necessary and within the rural community area may be taken up along with drains.

? The state government may notify any other work in consultation with the Central Government.

Parameters of MGNREGA:-
The following points are important parameters of National Rural Employment Guarantee Program-
(i) Eligibility- Any person above the age of 18 residing in rural areas is entitled to apply for work under the Act.
(ii) Conditions for Guaranteed Employment- Every adult person who-
• Resides in any rural areas;
• Is willing to do informal physical work at the statutory minimum wage.
May submit his/her name and address to the Gram Panchayat and apply for registration. It shall be the duty of the Gram Panchayat to register him/her and issue him/her a job card with date and photograph.
(iii) Timely Payment- Workers are too paid within seven days of the week when work has been done. Payment of wages is to be made in front of the community.
(iv) Unemployment Allowance- If work is not provided within 15 days, applicants are entitled to unemployment allowance. In the Act, the unemployment allowance has been tentatively fixed at one third of the statutory minimum wage.
(v) Participation of Women- Priority is to be given to women in the allocation of work, “approach that at least one-third of the beneficiaries shall be women”.