1.1 Characterise the concepts and nature of management and the function of leadership
The relationship between management and leadership is that we are both working to achieve the same aims and objectives of the service. Managers generally run the business and have the overall knowledge of the business whereas leaders support the manager in the running of the business and encourage the staff team to follow the correct practices to promote the service. Leaders need to be able to listen to staff and need to be able to liaise on behalf of the staff team with the manager. Managers need to plan and organise the business, they need to be able to budget the business and ensure that the standards of the service are maintained and carried out. The manager must be organised and be able to view the service from a business point of view, be able to work out the costs of the business and be able to determine the margins re profit and loss. I run a restaurant and need to ensure that we are competitive within the market, offer good food and a relaxed atmosphere to encourage people to visit the restaurant. So, I ensure that the resources are in place re suppliers and staff and that the staff understand good customer care. Leaders need to promote the implementation of the practice with staff and make sure they are working correctly and maintaining good standards re hygiene and working well with customers. They oversee the running of the restaurant and liaise with me when problems or concerns arise. The leaders are also in the restaurant and can implement changes quickly to ensure customers are happy and can often see areas where changes can be made to improve the service. As a manager I must implement changes and manage the impact of these to ensure that they benefit the restaurant and promote our success, and that any changes are economical and improve the dining experience for our customers. As a manager I must concentrate on several areas of the business and my attitudes influence this. I must promote and involve the staff team and use meetings and the passing on of information to ensure staff are kept involved in the running of the business and I discuss areas of the business with the most appropriate team members i.e. change of menu’s will be discussed with the chefs and kitchen staff, also with suppliers. I think I am a democratic manager and value the opinions of others, I may not always act on their ideas, but this is because I must consider the overall impact on the business. I am also a laissez faire manager and trust my team to carry out their roles when I am not present and to ensure that the practices continue to promote a good service for customers which is the
main purpose of the business. I work closely with my manager/ leader and we ensure that the practices are clear and that any concerns are raised and resolved quickly. If needed I can be controlling if the circumstances require it i.e. breakdown of equipment or issues with the environment that will impact on the business and will make decisions based on the situation to get it resolved quickly.
1.2 Evaluate concepts and definitions of leadership and their influence on management
Management and leadership styles influence the workplace and the business values and influences the motivation of the team and the ambiance of the restaurant. Through encouraging the sharing of ideas and listening to other opinions re the service we can ensure that everyone feels involved in the business and feels part of the process and have a sense of pride in their roles. Within the restaurant it is important that everyone carries out their roles well and work together for the benefit of the customers. This involves all staff carrying out their roles well and management styles can influence the team and how it works through the style of management used. If I was autocratic and controlling staff would be less motivated and not be able to make decisions for themselves. They would not value their roles, and this would impact on the atmosphere within the service. I can not be too laid back either and the laissez faire style of management is often used to promote the team and to enable their development, and I know that the team is able to carry out their roles without constant direction. The team need to be able to use their consideration and to make decisions for themselves as they deal with the public, and ultimately this will improve the customers experience of the restaurant. My role is to ensure that the values and culture of the restaurant are maintained, that we make it a pleasant experience for the customers to guarantee the reputation of the service and get positive feedback from customers and repeat business. I remain part of the restaurant and often observe the team when working and this helps me to determine any areas of weakness and helps me to develop the team to continue the service we need to maintain and to ensure that we continue to promote the best service we can. This ensures that the business remains viable and as a family business values the staff team, which is then reflected with our customers.
1.3 Evaluate the influence of effective and ineffective leadership and management on team behaviour and business performance.
Effective managers ensure that the team is happy and understand their roles and responsibilities. It provides good organisation of the business which ensures that any concerns can be acted upon quickly and changes made to ensure the business remains viable. Good management ensures that the service is monitored, and that staff are trained and continue to be kept up to date. It ensures that the business keeps up to date with new legislation, and changes with the times to maintain a viable business. Leaders influence the team behaviours and can encourage change within the team, they also ensue that the team is working effectively and smoothly. They work alongside the team and deal with the day to day needs of the service.
Ineffective management leads to falling standards and poor organisation. The team will not have any direction and will be left to their own devices. This leads to different ways of working and will lead to lack of coherence within the team. The business would have no controls in place and would lead to poor customer service and poor practices. It could lead to fraudulent activities and loss of income for the business. If there is no direction for the team then the customers will not be served correctly, there will be mistakes with ordering, supplies may not be replenished, and the business will begin to get poor reviews and could lead to the closure of the business.
2.1 Analyse the characteristics of different leadership styles.
Different leadership styles differ and vary, some different leadership styles are:- Situational leadership where the leaders style differs depending on the situation they are having to deal with and can be task or relationship orientated. This management style needs a leader that can adapt quickly to differing situations. There are four styles within situational leadership telling, selling, participating, and delegating. The leader needs to be able to adapt, inform and interact well with others to manage the situation. Transactional leadership is used where there are clear directions and ways of working and clear management, it uses a reward system to get improvement or changes implemented. Transformational leadership is used to innovate and implement change through different methods and by inspiring others. Strategic leadership style of management means understanding the business and planning for every eventuality, being able to deal with differing situations in a professional manner. There are also the autocratic styles of management that can be used particularly in emergency situations where a decision is needed quickly. It can mean that others follow the leader and do not question their decisions which can lead to dissatisfaction in the workforce where others are afraid to make decisions and the manager does not delegate tasks to others. Democratic leadership means involving others in determining the actions to be taken to implement change. This style of leadership wants to get agreement from staff before making changes and this promotes ownership of the changes. Laissez faire style of leadership means to be laid back, this can lead to disorganisation as there is no definite leadership. It can be used as a developmental tool where staff are encouraged to learn and develop their own skills and promotes the qualifications and experience of the team.
2.2 Evaluate the suitability of different leadership styles for different purposes and situations.
Differing styles of management are used for different situations and to get different outcomes. Autocratic leadership is good when decisions need making quickly and there is no time to discuss the decisions to be made. It is like transactional management styles where there are set policies and procedures to be followed and these dictate the actions to be taken in differing situations. A democratic style of management is used in team meetings and to discuss issues or concerns and agree how these can be changed and managed. The transformational style of leadership is used when you need to be adaptable to differing situations within the business such as in the restaurant business when customers needs change frequently. Laissaiz faire management styles are used to develop the team and to encourage them to use their experience and qualifications without lots of overseeing, such as the kitchen and the chefs, they run that area and have the experience and knowledge to be able to make decisions about the menus re seasonal produce or supplies of foods. Strategic leadership is used to promote planned changes within business, this is not a style I use as we have a small family business and we work together so involvement is important to ensure a harmonious team and a pleasant experience for customers.
2.3 Evaluate the factors that affect the suitability of different management styles
The factors that may affect the suitability of different management styles may be dependent on the manager and their experiences and knowledge. It may also be dependant on the size of the business and what the aims of the business is. My business works with customers who are paying for a service and have expectations of the restaurant and the food. I must deal with different people on a daily basis and have to accept that at times they will not be happy with the food or service and must be able to deal with these customers to achieve a positive outcome for them and the service. I must listen to customers and their feedback is important in the development of the service. I also work closely with
my team and involve them in discussions around the business, this is possible as we have a small team but may not be practical in a large business or an industrial environment. We can implement change quickly in the restaurant and again this may not be as easy in larger business’ or where business is spread out and cover differing areas. Although we have targets to achieve re income we can adapt the service to meet differing needs quickly whereas bigger business may have hard targets to meet daily to remain viable and this will impact on the management style in place.
2.4 Evaluate the ethical dimensions of leadership styles
As a small business we must ensure that we provide a good service, and this means providing good food for customers. We must ensure that we are adaptable to ensure that we use local produce and seasonal foods, there is an expectation that our food is of good quality and we need to ensure our standards remain high. We want repeat customers and referrals to others to use the restaurant and this means treating people fairly and ensuring that they get good efficient service, get value for money and have a comfortable, pleasant environment in which to eat. We must consider our environmental impact and our costs so need to ensure that our management style maintains control of budgets and running costs. The staff team is our most important asset and it is important that they are paid appropriately, have holidays and feel part of the team, this reduces staff change overs and the costs re training. It ensures good team working and improves the experiences for customers with consistency of service. It is important that I work with integrity and promote the rights of my employees and ensure that there are policies and procedures in place to protect the staff team and their rights. I also ensure that discrimination does not happen and that all staff are treated fairly within the business and make sure I listen to their concerns and complaints and act on these to maintain the satisfaction and motivation of the team.
3.1 Analyse the relationship between job satisfaction, commitment, motivation, empowerment and business performance
If staff members are involved in discussions around the service, they will feel empowered and have more interaction and ownership of the business. This means they will be able to state their views and assist in the implementation of changes. They will not be passive in the process and will feel more valued when involved, this then leads to better job satisfaction for the staff, reducing loss or changes in the team and promoting their development and promotion within the service. Involvement in the running of the business helps to improve commitment of the staff team and increases their motivation to improve standards and the business. If the staff team are happy and settled then the business benefits as the team works more efficiently, works cohesively and this improves the outcomes for the customers of the service. If staff are dissatisfied, they will lack motivation and commitment for the service, they will not feel empowered or able to contribute to the development of the service. This would lead to lowered standards as staff would not be bothered about the outcomes. The team would be disjointed and not work together and there would be little consistency between the team. Unrest would occur, and the staff turn over would increase which could put pressure on other members of the team and lead to further dissatisfaction.
3.2 Evaluate the implications of motivation and empowerment for an organisation’s structure and culture.
Motivation of the staff team helps to increase the output of the business and helps the business develop and improve the outcomes for customers. It provides a good picture of the service and promotes a good atmosphere. If motivation is lacking, then this may lead to a poor atmosphere in the business and would lead to loss of customers. Staff would be unhappy and have little job satisfaction which could
lead to poorer outcomes for the business. Empowerment of staff helps to promote interest and understanding of their roles. This means they will feel valued as part of the team and not isolated form the outcomes of the business. Empowering staff will help with the development of the business through promotion of staff and the development of their knowledge and experience, it means that the more experienced staff can support others in their roles and pass on their experience to them. It also means that there will be less staff turnover which will promote better working and reduce costs of recruitment and training of new staff.
3.3 Analyse the implications for employee relations policy of a strategy that empowers a workforce.
If staff are involved in the workplace and have their ideas and input into the business, then they will feel more valued, appreciated and involved. They will have more interest in the business and more commitment towards the business. Staff will be more positive about their roles and will be more open to change and the development of new ways of working. They will be more likely to make decisions and to apply the experience to the bettering of the business. By empowering staff, we ensure that they will work to their best and providing a welcoming service for customers, be happy in their roles and promote the business in a positive way, which improves the outcomes for the business.
3.4 Analyse the principles underpinning a reward strategy
The principles for a reward strategy are to promote better outcomes or productivity in the work force. It can be a monetary reward as in pay rises, or when qualifications are achieved a pay increase or non-monetary rewards such as increased leave entitlement. The principles of the reward system are to promote better training within the service and to encourage staff retention, rewards for achievements of targets or increased business. Any reward system needs to be fair and achievable by all staff and should be related to the aims and objectives of the service and is often used to motivate staff in their roles. Reward strategies are put in place to retain staff and improve performance but must work within the employment legislation we follow.
4.1 Assess approaches to performance management and appraisal
In my service staff are observed during their normal working hours and we also receive feedback from the customers about the service they receive. These are then used to inform and discuss the practices of individuals in appraisals. This allows for areas of strengths to be praised and for the discussion around areas of weakness and how these can be improved. Performance management is where the expectations of the business are laid down and staff informed of these during induction training. These standards are a way of measuring staff performance and apply to all the staff team. These can then be used to measure performance during appraisals of staff against the base lines set down. Performance management can be used to determine if there are any development needs or retraining needs of the staff member and may indicate areas they require support in, or areas where concerns are arising.
4.2 Assess the factors involved in managing a work-life balance and their implications for individuals
The factors that are involved in a work life balance include the work time balances, there is legislation in place to ensure that employees are not exploited and to ensure that staff have a break from the workplace where they can follow social pursuits. Often this means ensuring staff are paid a reasonable rate so that they are not forced into working extra hours or taking out other jobs to be able to live. Being adaptable in employing staff ensures that they have time in their lives for other roles i.e. care of others. The type of business may also be a factor in work life balance, and the shifts staff may have to work. Night shifts or part time work may be suitable for some people and enable them to care for families or to fit in with school hours. The implementation of maternity and paternity leave is in place
to allow for the person to give extra support at this time. Leave may also be applied for and granted re bereavement or special leave re caring roles. This is only effective if it does not have a financial impact on the person otherwise staff will work through these times and become tired and ineffective, lose concentration and become clumsy. The type of work being carried out also factors into a work life balance, is it dangerous, are there health and safety issues to be considered, does the staff member need to concentrate, are there sufficient breaks, checks re health and appropriate leave benefits. The business needs to ensure that there is appropriate cover for leave and that staff are not financially affected when taking leave otherwise they will not use this time and could become a hazard to themselves and others. The needs of the service also need considering and planning for leave and absences needs to be in place. Good policies and procedures need implementing to ensure that staff’s rights are fair and promoted.
4.3 Evaluate the use of tools and techniques to measure human resource interventions
Within my business I use appraisals to determine the staff members performance, look at areas for development and to discuss any concerns with their work roles. This is also used to inform the staff member of their rights if other actions are to be implemented. Staff also undergo an induction to the service and their contracts state their rights and the policies and procedures in place. If HR resources are required, then the appropriate policy is implemented and acted upon. The staff member has the right to representation in any process re HR. We also have performance management standards which can be used to measure performance and again my lead to the involvement of HR services.
4.4 Identify areas for improvement through reflection on their own practice.
Reflection is an ongoing process and the business gets feedback from our customers both online and face to face and this leads our development and change of the service to improve the service for the customers. In my own practice I am undertaking this qualification to improve my knowledge and develop my skills regarding management and in doing so hope this will help me to improve the business.